اثر رشد جنین میزبان بر کارایی زنبورTrissolcus vassilievi

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تبریز

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ورامین

چکیده

پارازیتوییدهای تخم از جمله مهم‌ترین دشمنان طبیعی سن گندم هستند. آگاهی از نیازهای اکولژیک دشمنان طبیعی در موفقیت کنترل بیولژیک کاربردی نقش اساسی دارد. یکی از موضوعاتی که در این راستا مطرح است اثر رشد جنین میزبان بر کارایی زنبورهای رشدیافته در آن‌هاست. این موضوع با قرار دادن تخم‌های تازه گذاشته شده (شاهد)، یک، دو، سه، چهار و پنج روزه‌یEurygaster integriceps  در اختیار زنبور پارازیتویید Trissolcus vassilievi مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. دو جمعیت زنبور با منشاء معتدله (تبریز) و نیمه گرمسیری (ورامین) برای این مطالعه به‌کار گرفته شد. تخم‌های پنج روزه جز شش مورد پارازیته نشدند که آن هم تماماً فرزندان نر خارج شدند. اختلاف معنی‌داری بین دو جمعیت زنبور از نظر میزان پارازیتیسم مشاهده نشد، ولی اختلاف بین سنین مختلف تخم میزبان معنی‌دار بود. میزان پارازیتیسم زنبورها تا پایان دوروزگی رشد جنین تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت، ولی در تخم‌های سه و چهار روزه کاهش معنی‌داری نشان داد. درصد خروج حشرات کامل، نسبت جنسی نتاج و زادآوری زنبورهای خارج شده نیز تحت تأثیر سن میزبان قرار گرفت. زادآوری با افزایش رشد جنین بعد از یک روزگی کاهش معنی‌داری نشان داد و حداکثر تفاوت بین شاهد و تخم‌های چهار روزه حدود 50% بود. زنبورهایی که در تخم‌های با جنین رشد یافته نشو و نما کرده بودند، در هفته‌ی اول زندگی خود موفق به جبران نسبی عقب‌ماندگی تولیدمثلی اولیه شدند. در مجموع رشد جنین میزبان تا دو روزگی اثر اندکی روی زنبورها داشت ولی بعد از آن موجب افت شدید شایستگی نتاج شد.

 

 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


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