مهار زیستی بیماری پاخورۀ گندم با استفاده از سویه‌های تولیدکنندۀ بیوفیلم باکتری Bacillus subtilis

نویسنده

دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

بیماری پاخورۀ گندم از مهم‌ترین بیماری‌های قارچی خاک‌زاد است که هر ساله خسارت‌های قابل توجهی به این محصول راهبردی در دنیا و ایران وارد می‌نماید. در این پژوهش، پتانسیل 27 سویه باکتری آنتاگونیست Bacillus subtilisدر مهار زیستی قارچ Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici، عامل بیماری پاخورۀ گندم در آزمایشگاه و گلخانه مورد ارزیابی قرارگرفت. همه سویه‏های مورد مطالعه در آزمون کشت متقابل در برابر قارچ بیمارگر ضمن ایجاد هاله بازدارنده، بین 48/39 تا 29/96 درصد از رشد میسلیوم قارچ جلوگیری نمودند. در آزمون تولید متابولیت‌های فرار ضدقارچی، برخی سویه‌ها رشد قارچ بیمارگر را به‌میزان 62/87% کاهش دادند که البته این مقدار برای تعدادی از سویه‌ها کمتر از 20% بود. از بین سه غلظت 5، 15 و 25 درصد ترشحات مایع خارج سلولی، بیشتر سویه‌ها در غلظت 25% بیشترین میزان بازدارندگی از رشد قارچ را نشان دادند. همۀ سویه‌ها قادر به‌تولید بیوسورفکتانت و بیوفیلم بودند، با این حال تنوع زیادی در بین سویه‌های مورد مطالعه دیده شد. میزان همبستگی بین تولید بیوسورفکتانت و بیوفیلم در آزمایشگاه، 83/0 بود. تعداد 11 سویه باکتری با توان مختلف آنتاگونیستی و تولید بیوفیلم، برای بررسی امکان مهار زیستی بیماری در گلخانه انتخاب شد که همۀ سویه‌ها توانستند بین 20-100 درصد بیماری را کاهش دهند. 72 درصد از سویه‌ها، بیماری را بیش از 50 درصد نسبت به‌شاهد کاهش دادند. بین میزان مهار زیستی بیماری در گلخانه با تولید بیوفیلم و بیوسورفکتانت در آزمایشگاه به‌ترتیب 71/0 و 85/0 همبستگی وجود داشت.

 

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