مطالعه‌ی مگس‌های سیرفید شکارگر شته‌ی مومی کلمBrevicoryne brassicae در مزارع کلزای استان کرمانشاه و بررسی ویژگی‌های زیستی و تغذیه‌ای Eupeodes corollae

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مبخش تحقیقات گیاه‏پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه

2 گروه گیاه‌پزشکی دانشکده‌ کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

3 عضو هیات علمی موسسه تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی کشور

چکیده

مگس‌های شکارگر خانواده‌ی Syrphidae نقش مؤثری در مهار زیستی آفات و حفظ تعادل طبیعی زیست بوم‌های زراعی و باغی دارند. طی سال‌های 1394-1392 بررسی‌هایی در زمینه ارزیابی برخی ویژگی‏های زیستی این شکارگرها در مزارع کلزای استان کرمانشاه انجام شد. در این تحقیق 12 گونه‌ی سیرفید شکارگر شناسایی شد که همه‌ی آن‌ها متعلق به زیر خانواده‌ی Syrphinae بودند. گونه‌ی E. corollae با 67 درصد فراوانی به‌عنوان گونه‌ی غالب شناخته شد. زیست‌شناسی این گونه با پرورش روی شته‌ی مومی کلم B.brassicae در دماهای 20، 25 و 30 درجه‌ی سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5±60 درصد و دوره‌ی نوری 16 ساعت روشنایی در داخل انکوباتور بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد طول‌ دوره‌های رشدی و میزان تغذیه در سه دمای مختلف معنی‌دار بود (P<0.01). میانگین دوره‌ی رشدی این حشره مفید در دماهای 20، 25 و 30 درجه‌ی سلسیوس به‌ترتیب 45/22، 82/18 و 17/15 روز و هر لارو به‌طور میانگین به‌ترتیب از 07/371، 00/283 و 13/253 عدد شته تغذیه کرد. لاروهای سن سوم این گونه تغذیه بیشتری داشتند. با افزایش دما، طول دوره‌های لاروی و میزان تغذیه نیز کاهش یافت. بالاترین میزان مرگ و میر در دماهای 20 و 30 درجه و پایین‌ترین نیز در دمای 25 درجه‌ی سلیسیوس ثبت شد که دمای بهینه برای پرورش آن‌ محسوب می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abdalrahman, H.A. & Mohamad, S.K. 1982. Seasonal abundance of syrphid flies in Giza and Ciro Governorates. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 64: 201-211.
Barbir, J., Badenes‐Pérez, F.R. Fernández‐Quintanilla, C. & Dorado, J. 2015. The attractiveness of flowering herbaceous plants to bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in agro‐ecosystems of Central Spain. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 17(1): 20-28.
Bhagat, K.C., Koul, V.K. Massodi, M.A. & Kaul, V. 1994. Development and predation of Metasyrphus corollae (Fabr) (Diptera: Syrpidae) on the dusky veined walnut aphid, Callaphis juglandis Kalt. Proceeding of the Section Experrimental Applied Entomology the Netherland Entomological Society, 7: 123-126.
Brewer, M.J., & Elliott, N.C, 2004. Biological control of cereal aphids in North America and mediating effects of host plant and habitat manipulations. Annual Review of Entomology, 49: 219–242.
Bugg, R.L., Colfer, R.G. Chaney, W.E. Smith, H.A. & Cannon, J. 2008. Flower flies (Syrphidae) and biological control agents for aphids in vegetable crops. Available on: http://www. Anrcatalog. Ucdavis. Edu. Aphid densities, with comments on classical biological control of soybean aphid in the Midwest. Journal of Economic Entomology, 101: 278–287.
Chambers, R.J. & Adams, T.H.L. 1986. Quantification of the impact of hoverflies Metasyrphus corollae (Dip., Syrphidae) on cereal aphid Sitobion avenae in winter wheat: an analysis of field populutions. Journal of Applied Ecology, 3: 895–904.
Dousti, A.F. 1999. Fauna and diversity of Syrphidae in Ahvaz and its suburbs. M.Sc. thesis in agricultural entomology. Chamran University, 129 p. (In Persian with English summary).
Farahbaksh. G.A. 1961. List the most important pests of plants and agricultural products in Iran. Publications of Plant Protection Organization, 153 p.
Freier, B., Triltsch, H. Mowes, M. & Moll, E. 2007. The potential of predators in natural control of aphids in wheat: results of a ten-year field study in two German landscapes. BioControl, 52, 775–788.
Golmohammadzadeh-Khiaban, N. & Adim, H. 2002. Introduce Eumerus sogdionus Stak flie from the Sistani plant in Iran. Proceedings of the 15th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, August, Kermanshah, 349. (In Persian with English summary).
Haenke, S., Scheid, B. Schaefer, M. Tscharntke, T. & Thies, C., 2009. Increasing syrphid fly diversity and density in sown flower strips within simple vs. complex landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46: 1106–1114.
Hickman, J.M. & Wratten, S.D. 1996. Use of Phacelia tanacetifolia strip to enhance biological control of aphid by hoverfly larve in cereal field. Journal of Economic Entomology, 4: 832-840.
Hopper, J.V., Nelson, E.H. Daane, K.M. & Mills, N.J. 2011. Growth, development and consumption by four syrphid species associated with the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, in California. Biological Control, 58(3): 271-276.
Islam, S.S. & Chapman, R.B. 2001. Effect of temperature on predation by Tasmanian lacewing larvae. New Zealand Plant Protection, 54: 244-247.
Jalilian, F. Fathipour, Y. & Talebi, A.A. 2004. Identification of Syrphid Flies and Study of Biological and Behavioral Characteristics of Some Predaceous Species in Northern Parts of Ilam Province. MS thesis in agricultural entomology. Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 127p. (In Persian with English summary).
Jalilian, F., Fathipour, Y. Talebi, A.A. & Sedaratian, A. 2011. Functional response and mutual interference of Episyrphus balteatus and Scaeva albomaculata (Dip.: Syrphidae) fed on Mysuz persicae (Hom.: Aphididae). Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 78: 257-273. (In Persian with English summary).
Jankowska. B. 2005. Predatory syrphids occurring in the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) colonieson different cabbage vegetables. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 1 (45): 1-8.
Jervis, M. 1996. Insect natural enemies, In: practical approaches to their study and evaluation. Chapman and Hall, London, United Kingdom, 491pp.
Khajehzadeh, Y. 2004. Faunistic studies on harmful insects on canola and its important natural enemies in Khuzestan. Proceedings of the 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 25–28 August, Tabriz, 109.
Kopta, T., Pokluda, R. & Šarapatka, B. 2009. Flowering plant strips as potential host plants for natural enemies (Coccinellidae and Syrphidae) in the Czech Republic. In BIOACADEMY 2009-Proceedings, organic farming: a response to economic and environmental challenges, Lednice na Moravě, Czech Republic, 24-26 June 2009, 80-84.
Kralicova, A. 2003. Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of Ramsar locality NNR Pariske molare, In 2nd International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Alicante, Spain. 139 pp.
Laubertie, E. 2007. The role of resource subsidies in enhancing biological control of aphids by hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae). Ph.D. dissertation, Lincoln University.
Lotfalizadeh, H.A. & Gharali, B. 2002. Syrphidae funa in Mogan region. Proceedings of the 15th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, August, Kermanshah, 103. (In Persian with English summary).
Macleod, A. 1999. Attraction and retention of Episyrphus balteatus De Geer at unarable field margin with rich and poor floral resources, Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 73: 237-244.
Malkeshi, S.H. Rezvani, A. & Talebi, A.A.1998. Identification of important natural enemies of pome fruits aphid's in Bojnord. Proceedings of the 14th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, August 1998, 263. (In Persian with English summary).
Malkeshi, S.H., Gilasian, E. Ghadirirad, S. Modarres-Nazafabadi, S.S. Pirhadi, A. & Khajehzadeh, Y. 2004. Study on natural enemies of Brevicoryne brassicae L in rapeseed farms. Proceedings of the 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 25–28 August, Tabriz, 48. (In Persian with English summary).
Modarres-Najafabadi, S.S. 2004. Study on cabbage aphid population fluctuation and identification of natural enemies in the Sistan region. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, 4: 175-186. (In Persian with English summary).
Modarres-Aval, M. 1994. List of agricultural pests and their natural enemies in Iran. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press, 364p. (In Persian with English summary).
Moharamipour, S., Monfared, A.R. Fathipour, Y. & Talebi, A.A. 2002. Antixenotic resistance of 27 cultivars of rapeseed to cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae L in germinator. Proceedings of the 15th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, August, Kermanshah, 98. (In Persian with English summary).
Morris, M.C. 2000. Intercropping with coriander attracts hoverflies and reduces pest infestation in Japanese cabbage fields. Proceedings of the 13th IFOAM conference, Basel, p. 118.
Peck, L.V. 1988. Family Syrphidae. pp. 11-230. In: Soos, A. & Papp, L. (eds.), Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera, Vol. 8. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York.
Perdikis, D.C.H., Lykouressis, D. P. & Economou, L.P. 1999. The influence of temperature, photoperiod and plant type on the predation rate of Macrolophus pygmaeus on Myzus persicae. Biocontrol, 44: 281-289.
Pineda, A. & Marcos-Garcia, M.A. 2008. Evaluation of several strategies to increase the residence time of Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae) releases in sweet pepper greenhouses. Annals of Applied Biology, 152: 271-276.
Radhakrishnan, B. & Muraleedharan, N. 1993. Bioecology of six species of syrphid predators of the tea aphid, Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer De Fonscolombe) in Southern India. Entomon, 18: 175-180.
Ranji, H. Malekshi, S.H. & Mousavi, S.H. 2006. The study of biodiversity and population dynamics of predatory Syrphid flies in canola fields of West Azerbaijan province. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science, 6(37): 1041-1048.
Rojo, S., Hopper, K.R. & Marcos–Garcia, M.A. 1996. Fitness of the hoverflies Episyrphus balteatus and Eupeodes corollae faced with limited larval prey. Enomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 1: 53-59.
Ruzicka, Z. 1975. The effect of various aphids as larval prey on the development of Metasyrphus corollae (Diptera: Syrphidae). Entomophaga, 20: 393-402.
Sadeghi, H. 2003. A checklist of Iranian hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae). In 2nd International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Alicante, Spain. 139 pp.
Sadeghi Namaghi, H. 2002. The relationship between oviposition preference and larval performance in an aphidophagous hover fly. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology, 4: 1-10.
Sharma, K.C., Bhalla, O.P. Verma, A.K. & Chauhan, U. 1994. Biology and feeding potential of Episyrphus balteatus De Geer a syrphid predator of peach leafcurling aphid, Brachycaudus helichrysi Kalt (Homoptera: Aphididae). Pest Management and Economic Zoology, 1: 23-25.
Soleyman- Nezhadiyan, E. & Laughlin, R. 1998. Voracity of larvae, rate of development in eggs, larvae, pupae and flight seasons of adults of the hoverflies Melangyna viridiceps and Symosyrphus grandicornis (Diptera: Syrphidae). Australian Journal of Entomology, 37: 243-248.
Sommaggio, D. & Burgio, G. 2014.The use of Syrphidae as functional bioindicator to compare vineyards with different managements. Bulletin of Insectology, 67(1): 147-156.
Speight, M.C.D. & Sarthou, J.P. 2011. StN keys for the identification of adult European Syrphidae (Diptera), Glasgow 2011/Clés StN pour la détermination des adultes des Syrphidae Européens (Diptères), Glasgow. Syrph the Net, the database of European Syrphidae, 66.
Thompson, F.C. 2012. Biosystematic Database of World Diptera. Version 7.5. Accessible at http://www.diptera.org/biosys.htm. Captured on 10 August, 2012.
Vanhaelen, N., Gaspar, C. & Francis, F. 2002. Influence of prey host on a generalist aphidophagous predator, Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae). European Journal of Entomology, 99: 561-564.
White, A.J., Wrattan, S.D., Berry, N.A. & Weigmann, U. 1995. Habitat manipulation to enhance biological control of Brassica pests by hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae). Journal of Economic Entomoloy, 5: l171-1176.
Yang, F.C., Li, Z. W. Gao, H.C. Za, F.H. & Lin, G.D. 1989. Biology of Syrphus corollae and its role in controlling aphids on wheat. Natural Enemies of Insects, 11: 116–121.
Zeki, C. & Killincer, N. 1992. Investigations on some interactions between Metasyrphus corollae Fabr and different aphid species. Proceeding of the Second Turkish National Congress of Entomology, 99-108.