بررسی اثر دما بر روند رشد و نمو کفشدوزک Hippodamia variegata با تغذیه از شته‏ی سبز انار Aphis punicae

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه ولی عصر

چکیده

ویژگی‌هایی مانند دوره‌ی رشدی کوتاه‌تر، باروری بیشتر و اندازه­ی بزرگ‌تر بدن دشمنان طبیعی، برای تولید انبوه آن‌ها به‌عنوان عوامل کنترل بیولوژیک مهم هستند. یکی از شکارگرهای مهم آفات در باغ­های ایران کفشدوزک
Hippodamia variegata (Col.: Coccinellidae) است. در این پژوهش تأثیر شش دمای ثابت 5/17، 20، 5/22، 25، 5/27 و
30 (1±) درجه‌ی سلسیوس بر طول دوره‌ی رشد و نمو این کفشدوزک با تغذیه از شته‏ی سبز انارAphis punicae
(Hem.: Aphididae) در اتاق رشد با رطوبت نسبی 5±65 درصد و دوره‌ی نوری 16 ساعت روشنایی و 8 ساعت تاریکی بررسی شد. اثر دما بر طول دوره‌ی رشد هر یک از دوره‏های رشد و نمو کفشدوزک مورد بررسی معنی‏دار بود. میانگین طول دوره‏ی رشدی از تخم تا حشره‌ی کامل در دماهای یاد شده به‌ترتیب 541/1±01/46، 311/0±77/23، 226/0±29/19، 302/0±51/13، 283/0±59/12 و 731/0±01/17 روز بود. نرخ رشد و نمو مراحل رشدی کفشدوزک H. variegata با افزایش دما در دامنه‌ دمایی مورد بررسی تا 5/27 درجه‌ی سلسیوس به‌صورت خطی افزایش یافت. برای توصیف ریاضی این ارتباط از دو مدل خطی معمولی
(روز- درجه) و ایکموتو و تاکای استفاده شد. شاخص­های آماری مورد استفاده برای ارزیابی مشاهدات با مدل­های مورد بررسی نشان داد، در حالی‌که مدل خطی معمولی به‌خوبی قادر به توصیف این ارتباط خطی است، اما برازش مدل ایکموتو و تاکای بهتر از مدل یاد شده روی داده‌های ثبت شده است. کم‌ترین میزان مرگ و میر در دماهای 20 و 5/27 درجه مشاهده شد. براساس برآوردهای مدل خطی ایکموتو و تاکای آستانه‏ی پایین دمای رشد و نمو برای مرحله‏ی تخم، لارو، شفیره و کل دوره‏ی تخم تا حشره‏ی کامل با تغذیه از شته‏ی سبز انار به‌ترتیب 15/11، 13/14، 52/15 و 99/13 درجه‏ی سلسیوس و نیاز گرمایی برای مراحل رشدی بالا به‌‌ترتیب 69/44، 22/79، 62/23 و 34/157 روز- درجه‌ی سلسیوس برآورد شد. در این بررسی مدل ریاضی خطی بین دما و نرخ رشد و نمو هر یک از مراحل رشدی کفشدوزک با استفاده از هر دو مدل ارایه شد. بر پایه‌ی نتایج این پژوهش دمای بهینه برای رشد این کفشدوزک 25 تا 5/27 درجه‏ی سلسیوس است.

 

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