بررسی بیمارگری دو گونه‌ی Steinernema carpocapsae و Heterorhabditis bacteriophora روی شب پره مینوز گوجه فرنگی (Tuta absoluta)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه بیماری شناسی گیاهی، واحد مرودشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

2 گروه حشره شناسی، واحد مرودشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

چکیده

شب‌پره‌ی مینوز گوجه‌فرنگی Tuta absoluta یکی از آفات خطرناک مزارع گوجه‌فرنگی می‌باشد که در صورت طغیان تا 100% محصول را از بین می‌برد. در این بررسی به نقش بیمارگری لاروهای سن سوم (IJs) دو گونه‌ی Steinernema carpocapsae و Heterorhabditis bacteriophora روی سنین مختلف لاروی آفت مذکور درون ظرف پتری و درون برگ‌های جدا شده‌ی گوجه‌فرنگی پرداخته شده و نماتد کارآمدتر انتخاب شد. توانایی گونه‌ی مؤثرتر در آلوده کردن لارو سن آخر و شفیره آفت در ظرف پتری (با سه غلظت 50، 100، 200 IJs نماتد در هر ظرف پتری) و حساسیت شفیره در خاک (50، 100، 200 IJs در هر سانتی‏متر مربع) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در گلخانه نیز توانایی گونه‌ی مؤثرتر در کنترل مراحل مختلف لاروی شب‌پره بررسی و با سم ایندوکساکارب (با غلظت یک در هزار) مقایسه شد. در آزمایشگاه توانایی نماتد H. bacteriophora در کنترل لارو آفت تقریباً 7/1 برابر S. carpocapsae بود و برای آزمایشات تکمیلی انتخاب گردید. تعداد 50 IJs نماتد در هر پتری باعث مرگ 84 درصد از لاروهای سن آخر آفت شد. بیشترین درصد مرگ و میر شفیره‌ها در ظرف پتری (40%) زمانی مشاهده شد که 200 IJs نماتد در هر پتری استفاده گردید و جمعیت IJs/cm2 200 باعث مرگ 28% از شفیره‌های درون خاک گردید. افزایش جمعیت نماتد باعث افزایش درصد آلودگی شفیره‌ها شد. در شرایط گلخانه‌ای‌، لاروهای سن چهار T. absoluta بیشترین حساسیت را نسبت به بقیه سنین لاروی نشان دادند و کاربرد سم تأثیر چندانی در کنترل این آفت نداشت. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده به‌نظر می‌رسد نماتد H. bacteriophora بتواند باعث کاهش خسارت شده و به مهار زیستی آفت منتهی گردد.

 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


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Desneux, N., Wajnberg, E., Wyckhuys., K.A.G., Burgio., G., Arpaia, S., Narvaez-Vasquez, C.A., Gonzalez-Cabrera, J., Ruescas, D.C., Tabone, E., Frandon, J., Pizzol, J., Poncet, C., Cabello, T. & Urbaneja, A. 2010. Biological invasion of European tomato crops by Tuta absoluta: ecology, geographic expansion and prospects for biological control. Journal of Pest Science, 83: 197–215.

Desneux, N., Luna, M.G., Guillemaud, T. & Urbaneja, A. 2011. The invasive South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, continues to spread in Afro-Eurasia and beyond: the new threat to tomato world production. Journal of Pest Science, 84: 403–408.

Divya, K. & Sankar, M. 2009. Entomopathogenic nematodes in pest management. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2: 53–60.

Do Thi Khanh, H., Chailleux, A., Tiradon, M., Desneux, N., Colombel, E. & Tabone, E. 2012. Using new egg parasitoids (Trichogramma spp.) to improve integrated management against Tuta absoluta. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 42: 249–254.

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Ebssa, L. & Koppenhöfer, A.M. 2012. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the management of Agrotis ipsilon: effect of instar, nematode species and nematode production method. Pest Management Science, 68: 947–957.

Ehlers, R.U. & Shapiro-Ilan, D.I. 2005. Mass production. pp. 65–78. In: Grewal, P.S., Ehlers, R.U. & Shapiro-Ilan, D.I. (eds.), Nematodes as Biocontrol Agents. CAB International, Wallingford.

Gabarra, R., Arnó, J., Lara, L., Verdú, M.J., Ribes, A., Beitia, F., Urbaneja, A., Téllez, M. Del M., Mollá, O. & Riudavets, J. 2014. Native parasitoids associated with Tuta absoluta in the tomato production areas of the Spanish Mediterranean Coast. Biocontrol, 59: 45–54.

Garcia-del-Pino, F., Alabern, X. & Morton, A. 2013. Efficacy of soil treatments of entomopathogenic nematodes against the larvae, pupae and adults of Tuta absoluta and their interaction with the insecticides used against this insect. BioControl, 58: 723–731.

Ghoneim, K. 2014. Predatory insects and arachnids as potential biological control agents against the invasive tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in perspective and prospective. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2: 52–71.

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Lewis, E.E., Gaugler, R. & Harrison, R. 1993. Response of cruiser and ambusher entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) to host volatile cues. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 71: 765–769.

Lewis, E.E., Grewal, P.S. & Gaugler, R. 1995. Hierarchical order of host cues in parasite foraging strategies. Parasitology, 110: 207–213.

Lietti, M.M.M., Botto, E. & Alzogaray, P.A. 2005. Insecticide Resistance in Argentine Populations of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Neotropical Entomology, 34:113–119.

Metwally, H.M.S., Hafez, G.A., Hussein, M.A., Hussein, M.A., Salem, H.A. & Saleh, M.M.E. 2012. Low cost artificial diet for rearing the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as a host for entomopathogenic nematodes. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 22: 15–17.

Moosavi, M.R. & Zare, R. 2012. Fungi as biological control agents of plant-parasitic nematodes. pp: 67–107. In: Merillon, J.M. & Ramawat, K.G. (eds.), Plant Defence: Biological Control, Progress in Biological Control 12. Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht.

Moosavi, M.R. & Askary, T.H. 2015. Nematophagous fungi- Commercialization. pp: 187–202. In: Askary, T.H. & Martinelli, P.R.P. (eds.), Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.

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