بررسی نوسانات فصلی درصد پارازیتیسم پارازیتوئیدهای شب‌پره‌‌ی پشت الماسی، Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae)در مزارع کلم گل جنوب تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران

چکیده

شب‌پره‌ی‌پشت‌الماسی، Plutella xylostella مخرب‌ترین آفت گیاهان خانواده‌ی کروسیفر یا چلیپائیان (Brassicaceae) در سرتاسر دنیا می‌باشد. به‌منظور شناسایی و بررسی نوسانات جمعیّت پارازیتوئیدهای این آفت از خرداد ماه تا اوایل آبان ماه سال 1390 از مزارع کلم گل منطقه‌ی جنوب تهران نمونه‌برداری صورت گرفت. از هر مزرعه در مناطق جهان آباد، کهریزک، شکر آباد و پلائین قطعه‌ای به‌مساحت یک هکتار برای نمونه برداری انتخاب شد. در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شاهد نیز مزرعه‌ای به‌مساحت 600 متر مربع به‌عنوان مزرعه بدون سم‌پاشی انتخاب شد. بوته به‌عنوان واحد نمونه برداری در نظرگرفته شد و از هر مزرعه 20 بوته انتخاب شدند. نمونه برداری به‌فواصل هر دو هفته یک‌بار انجام شده و تمام لارو و شفیره‌های روی هر بوته جمع‌آوری گردید و در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و روی برگ‌های گیاه میزبان تا مرحله‌ی خروج پارازیتوئید‌ها پرورش داده شد. همچنین به‌طریق فراخوانی پارازیتوئید‌ها جمع‌آوری شدند. در این بررسی سه گونه پارازیتوئید شناسایی شد که این گونه‌ها عبارت‌اند ازDiadegma anurum (Thomson, 877)،Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov, 1912)، Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov, 1912). در مجموع مناطق، بیشترین درصد پارازیتیسم توسط مجموع ارازیتوئیدها (75/47) در تاریخ 23 تیر ماه و کمترین آن (33/22) در تاریخ 29 خرداد ماه اتفاق افتاد. در مزرعه سم‌پاشی نشده بیشترین میانگین درصد پارازیتیسم در طول فصل (14/12) متعلق به‌گونه‌ی D. anurumبود. بیشترین درصد پارازیتیسم در مجموع (49/57)، در مزرعه‌ی جهان آباد و کمترین درصد پارازیتیسم (22/8) در مزرعه‌ی پلائین ثبت شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که درصد پارازیتیسم بین مزرعه سم‌پاشی نشده با سایر مزارع دارای اختلاف معنی‌‌داری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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